The Great Fire of 1875 – Nevada State Historic Marker

The Great Fire of 1875, in Virginia City is Nevada State Historic Marker Number 228 and located in Virginia City, Nevada. With the Comstock Load in full swing, Virginia City is bursting with activity and one of the fastest growing towns in Nevada. On October 27th, 1875, an fire is started from a simple burning candle, and burns town the bulk of the town.

Virginia City, Nevada in 1866
Virginia City, Nevada in 1866

Virginia City, Nevada by Augustus Koch, lithographed by Britton & Rey.

The map illustrates Virginia City, just a few months prior to the fire of October 1875, which significantly reshaped the town.
Virginia City, Nevada by Augustus Koch, lithographed by Britton & Rey. The map illustrates Virginia City, just a few months prior to the fire of October 1875, which significantly reshaped the town.

Nevada State Historic Marker Text

The most spectacular calamity to befall Virginia City had its origins within fifty feet of this marker.  Early on the morning of October 26, 1875, a coal oil lamp was knocked over in a nearby boarding house and burst into flames.  Strong winds spread the blaze and thirty-three blocks of structures were leveled.  The losses included St. Mary in the Mountains Catholic Church, the Storey County Courthouse, Piper’s Opera House, the International Hotel, city offices and most of Virginia City’s business district.  The offices and hoisting works of nearby mines were also destroyed.

After the fire, Virginia City established a new hydrant system and erected a number of new hose houses including this structure.


Nevada State Historic Marker Summary

NameThe Great Fire of 1875
LocationVirginia City, Storey County, Nevada
Latitude, Longitude39.3107, -119.6505
Nevada State Historic Marker Number228

Marker Location

Nevada State Historic Marker two hundred twenty eight is location in Virgina City, Nevada. The marker can be found on C Street (Nevada Route 341) and the east side of the street between Washington Street and Taylor Street. The marker is located to the left of the entrance door to the Nevada State Firemen’s Museum – Liberty Engine Company No.1 Building.

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 1, Number 219, 28 October 1875



A Full and Reliable Account – The Story Told After the Smoke has Cleared Away – Origin of the Fire – A Candle Burns a City – Boundaries of the Burned District Accurately Given – Drunken Man Chooses to Die In the Flames.


A Load Call on Insurance Reserves— Details of Losses NOW Knows $6,246,000, Exclusive of Personal Effects—Ascertained insurance $859,000, Supposed to be Only Two-thlrds or Loss to Companies— 4,000 People will Come to California.


Virginia City, October 27th. A fate long feared by all has befallen Virginia. She has met the fire fiend and became its victim. Tuesday morning, as the beats of time tripped on the hall hour after 5, the bells gave out In doleful peals the news or the attack of the destroying monster. The fire began in a small lodging-house kept by Kate Shay, alias Crazy Kate, a woman of ill repute. The house was located near the center of the city, half way between Taylor and Union streets, on A street. A neighbor saw the unusual light, entered the house and found the room next to Kate’s in flames. He believes it caught from a candle left burning, such being her habit. The house in a few minutes was in a blaze. Engine No. 4 and Babccck’s wheeled extinguisher were soon on hand, but were of no avail. A furious Kind was blowing directly down Mount Davidson, from the southwest, and the flames spread under its influence with fearful rapidity. The light siding 3 warped, blew off, and scattered cinders broadcast. In fifteen minutes more than a scare of buildings in the vicinity were on fire. The wind Increased, became fitful, and the fire spread in all directions, till a space equal to one block was on fire, the flames licking the very clouds, and roaring with a ferocity indescribable. Their awful tongues seized on brick, iron, stone, and lapped them up like straw, the firmest walls melting like wax before the intense heat. Now the wind blew a gale t setting more steadily from the south and driving the flumes northerly, enabling the firemen to check further progress southerly. To this fact the safety of the south part of the town and on the Divide is due. It was now seen that the attempts to stay the flames would be useless, and people began to remove their goods. The fire kepi on and soon along B street and encircled the county buildings, from which most of the valuable records were saved, the prisoners in the jail were removed to the station-house, and when that burned, to an ‘ old tunnel and shut in. The fire pushed up to A street j and swept one side of it and a part of the other for four | blocks. It whirled northerly down the hill and encircled the Bank of California and began its march along B and C streets about the same time. It crossed J C street, on down the hill to the Opera House and new j railroad depot. Giant powder was now placed in the Interior of the Catholic Church : and It was blown hundreds of feet into the air, leafing its bat. walls standing. This was done to stop the scattering of great cinders which were flying from the roof in all directions. Now the fire fiend shrieked with vengetnl de- | light and marched conquering on. The flames rose I hundreds of feet into the air, and the heat was so in- j

tense that adamant would melt before it like tissue paper in flame. The goods were removed to the street, caught fire and were consumed. As far up as A street the goods in the street were burned. The merchants now threw open their stores and told the people to help themselves to clothing and groceries, as nothing could be saved.

It was now 8 o’clock, and the scene beggared description. The streets were filled with people; teamsters were struggling through, an 1 firemen fighting the fire at all available points. Women were shrieking; ttie cries of despair; the curses of enraged men; the roar of the flames; the dull reports of explosions as building after building took fire; the heavy thud and crash of falling walls; tie snap of bursting iron bars and door.; the howl of the gale- all went to make up a scene of indescribable horror. It was now seen that the wind was shifting easterly and northerly, and on B street, at Carson street, the flames suddenly veered away right in the midst of a long row of wooden cottages, leaving half of them unharmed. Down wen the monster toward the residences on C street, crossing Carson street and following up the grade northerly half a block, where they turned due east and swept on almost to the Cemetery, where the wind suddenly chopped square round, and, with a wild embrace of a fine dwelling standing alone, the conflagration ended on the northeast.

Meanwhile the flames were marching down Taylor street on the south, passed across D street and on to G ; street, swallowing up churches] and residences, and I aiming for the mining works just beyond. By 9:30 am. it was seen they could not be save Men were ordered from the shafts, cages were pulled up and filled with earth, and the building] abandoned. By 10 a. lithe Consolidated Virginia’, hoisting works building and mill, costing $1,500,000, were wrapped in flames, and soon fell. The new California stamp mill then fell a prey to the maddened element, and it marched to within a few rods of the C. A C, hoisting works, where the veering of the wind mentioned checked the flames. But they rolled on southerly, and in maddening glee sent ereat tongues of flame to lick up the Ophir hoisting works, which soon fell in. The shaft took fire and burned down two tiers of timbers, when a stream was got on and the shaft I saved. Water is still kept on the shaft. Meanwhile a war of explosions was heard, as building after building was blown up. Some of the explosions made the earth tremble as if by earthquake, shattered windows far ] off and knocked down shelving and crockery. By 11 A. M. it was evident the flames bad spent their fury. The wind whirled, twirled and gusted about fitfully and then, as if satisfied with the work of its ally, died j away and left a bed of shouldering ruins, here and i there burning up between brick walls, full three-quarters of a mile long and half a mile wide. The burnt district is bounded as follows: All between Taylor street in the south, Carson street on the north, Stewart street on the west, and the China quarter on the east, including it along the east boundary line. After swallowing up Chinatown, which is on K street, between Taylor and Sutton avenue, It ran along Taylor to Union, then west to F, missing the C. A C. mill, and out to F and including the Ophir mill and residences just beyond. Besides this, it burned half a block south of Taylor street.


To give an idea of the fire and its extent, imagine a fierce hurricane in San Francisco from the east, and a ; fire to break out on Second street, just above Market to burn half way along Mission and Second, and back : of Second, and four doors back of Second on Market ; thence southerly on both sides of Market, Mission. Howard and Folsom to Fourth; thence along the east side of Fourth, along Market and Stockton, across Hush in a circular manner, winding up on Powell street in the region of Pine. Or, in Sacramento, if it embraced an area bounded from the depot along street to Sixth, out of Sixth to G, alone Sixth to J, out J to Ninth, out Ninth to N, down N to Third, and diagonally thence to the depot. A good idea of the space will thus be bad. It embraces a once thickly residence section, and seventeenths of all the business houses. It deprives about 200 business men of stock and store, and, as near as can be honestly estimated, 3,700 people of roofs to shelter them. Nearly all the residences were wooden ; the best business houses were brick er stone. About sixteenths of tie residence portion of the town Is left. When night closed in no pen can adequately describe the scene. Fortunately shelter was ample in the remaining houses for women and children, but all suffered with cold. Hundreds of men walked (be streets all night. The militia was called out and large numbers of special policemen sworn in ; but general good order was kept. Two men were killed during the fire. J. Ketton, of Gold Hill, was killed by the falling walls of the Carson Brewery, two citizens being bruised at the time. An unknown drunken man who was throwing things about in Ash’s book store was warned to come out, and refused, when


His body was consumed, and only the charred remains were taken out. A score of horses were burned in the stables. Eagle Engine No. 3 and Knickerbocker No. 5 were both lost, being caught between the flames and cut off.

It is impossible now to get individual losses, the owners being scattered, and reticent when found. It is impossible also to get at the insurance. The agents are close-mouthed, and few owners are yet found who can r tell where or for how much they are insured. The best business men estimate the


i Insurance, $1,500.000 ; on. -third in foreign companies i and the rest in local companies. A large number of I women and children have been sent to . Carson, God Hill, Reno and California. To-day there are light winds and showery weather threatening. -.. Hundreds | are poking in the ruins and searching for articles of value. Safes are being hauled out and vaults being burst open. The vault of the Hank of California is all right and only a few papers lost.


and they are being dealt out at the First Ward schoolhouse to the hungry. Reno, Gold Hill and other towns are sending food and clothing. There are fully 3,000 people without food, beds, roots, or money. There are of these fully 500 without necessary clothing. Should harsh weather soon set in much suffering must ensue. Until these people can get work they must be helped. Work will come In time, but three injured mines cannot. The employees say they cannot get buildings and machinery up under 60 days, but rebuilding will go on all over the city and they will give labor to hundreds in clearing the ruins, etc. The people are in good spirits, and while terribly affected they are


I ever had to do with. Hundreds are too proud to say they need help, and ladies go out and find women and children needing food but are ashamed to beg for it. This feeling Is relaxing, however, under the kind offices of the Relief Committee, which Is already partly organized.


Some shanties are already being put up, and workmen are busy shutting off broken water and gas-pipes and getting the worst debris out of the streets. Some of the streets are utterly Impassable, being choked with the ruins. The ferocity of the fire is seen In the twisted and warped iron-work and heavy walls drawn out of shape. Dangerous walls are being blown up every few minutes and others are being pushed over. The streets and c pen lots present a scene of indredible confusion; lumbered with broken furniture, ! damaged goods and broken machinery. The machinery of the two hoisting-works burned is believed to be badly damaged, but not utterly ruined. The water in the Consolidated Virginia mine is being pumped off through the Gould & Curry and other mines, but pumping facilities thus far are inadequate. Last night ‘ the air shaft of the Andes mine was on fire and sent up a column of fl .me 150 feet high. It Is believed that it will burn out the shaft and go no further. Communication is being pretty well cut off below. This mine is on the south of the region of fire and above, and took fire from flying cinders. Its buildings ate not yet burned so far as learned.


The following is the list of -offerers: Wm. Wood’s fine residence, Eigl. Engine House, Derby’s livery stable, Schlewick’s -lodging house, Mrs. Cooper’s fine buildings, the Noves building of Wilson & Brown, undertakers; Bank of California; Gillig’s large hardware house ; Court-house and jail ; International Hotel ; Mooney’s livery stable ; Piper’s Opera House; Railroad depot and last tunnel (.the latter fallen) ; Washoe Club House; Virginia Hotel ; Pulton market; Elliott’s grocery ; Piper’s saloon; Pioneer Hall; Manye’s fine building; Capital lodging-house; Thomas Buchner’s residence ; the fine residences of Judge Whitman, E. Strother, W. E. F. Deal, Fred Boegle, Jobn Mackey, J. P. Martin, Cbarles Forman, Charles Rawson, Judge Seely, F. A. Tritle, Charles Tozer, R. M. Daggett, W. B. Crane, A. Aurich, P. F. Beardsley, A. Hanak, HarryBlock, D. E. McCarthy, Judge Rising, Joseph Beer_, Oscar Steele, P. H. Scott, Thomas Grucey, C. M. Mayer, Simon Schlewk, Williams & Bixler’s building, Mallon’s store, Barnet’s clothing bouse, Banner Bros., M. Frederick, jewelry Union market; Philadelphia shoe store; A. Vaenber, dry goods ; Roos Bros., clothiers; Block & Co., dry goods; Harris Bros., cigars; Palace saloon; the large Catholic Church ; Methodist Churcb; Episcopal Church; Bishop Whittaker’s house, D. Driscoll’s house, great lumber piles at Opbir and Virginia mines, residences of W. B. Crane, Frank Thayer, Wm. Woods, J. T. Davis, Minors’ Union Hall, Spire’s salooa, Cornwell’a furniture store, and over 250 cottages and small residences. The latest information about the mines is that all the men got out, without exception. Some of the burning timbers of the Ophir shaft fell back down it and sent gases as of burning wood up. In Gould A Curry shaft water was lifted up and then dropped back, forcing gases back. It Is believed there Is no fire in Ophir at all. Water* however, Is kept on the shaft. MORE DETAILS OF LOSSES. Later.— l have been able to ascertain part of the losses: O. C. Steele, saloon, $25,000; A. C. Little’ musician, $4,00′ Jobn Piper, theater, $75,000; Cradock k Nye, butchers, $3,000; A. Hooper, saloon, $15,—000; J. Buckner, saloon and bouse, $50,000; C. Fa. lardo, saloon, $2,500; A. Hanak, jewelry and houses. $75,000; Finney k Moriaity, painters, $4,500; J. S. Noe, photographer, $5,000; F. V. Drake, attorney, $2,000; Thomas A. Stephens, lawyer, $3,000; F. King, house, $3,500; M. M. Frederick, jeweler, $90,000; Morris k Nathan, $40,000; Horace Smith, house, $10,000; Guy Thorpe, furniture, etc., $7,590; Wm. Woodburn, attorney, $400, Joe Douglass, building, $40,000; J. Daily, hatter, $1,000; Lind.ey __ Dixon, attorneys, $5,000; Edw. McGu’re, bouses, $-•,000; Waters & Treat, butchers, $5,000; H. K. attorney, $11,000; James Wilcoxen, saloon, $3,000; Rowe & Mayne, saloon and houses, $12,00>) ; McMillan & Adams, grocery, $-20,000 ; Sianecker & StonehlH, attorneys, $2,000. All the above are uninsured.

The following are insured: Mesick A Seely, attorneys, lose $16,000, Insured for 25 per cent; S. A. Tompkins, International Hotel, $35,000, insured for $17,000; Wood A Whitman, attorneys, $20,000, insured for $13,000; Spiro Vucovirh, saloon and residence, $16,000, insured for $6,500; A. Brischer, liquors, $13,000, insured for $5,0C0; J. Levy & Bro., clothier. , $30,000, insured for $15,000 ; A. Gundlacb, shoes, $15,000, insured for $10,000 ; Warren A Son, wagDn shop, $5,000, insured for $2,500 ; Isaac Berck, clothier. $30,000, insured for $12,500; Chas. Westtake, clnh house, $2,500, insured for $1,500 ; Tinker A Shephard, saloon, $15,000, insured for $7,000 ; Fazmier A Armbrust, confection” cry, $25,000, insured for $15,000 ; J. P. Smith, harness and dwelling, $15,000, insure! for $6,000; Lewis A Deal, library, $6,000, insured for $3,000; W. E. Deal, dwelling, $10,000, insured for $3,000 ; Keely A Williams, saloon, $20,000, insured for $2,000; Peter Morgan of Sacramento, blacksmith, $1,200, uninsured ; Williams A Bixler, building, $40,000, insured for $13,—000; Joe Stewart, club house, $25,000, insured for $8,000; Mr. Chiids, cigars, $2,500; insured for $1,500; W. B. Hickok, insurance agent, $6,000, in” sured for $1,500; Pioneer Hall, $10,000, insured for $4,000 ; Stewart’s mineral cabinet, $4,000, uninsured ; Dennis E. McCarthy, Evening Chronicle newspaper, $13,000, insured for $1,500; Vandenberg A Co., $40,. 000, insured for $20,000 ; Wilson A Brown, undertakers, $21,000, Insured for $4,500; J. S. Pidge, saloon, $10,—000, Insured for $4,000; George T. Marge, broker, $30,—000, insured for $10,000; E. J. Passmore, musician, $7,500, insured for $5,000; Jobn Giilig, late of Sacrament., hardware, $250 000, Insured for $S0,000 ; Roo« Brothers, clothier;, $10,000, insured for $50,000; William Ford, buildings, $61,000, Insured for $18,500; S. Packsher, cigars, $9,000, insured or $3,000; Henry Piper, saloon and dwelling, $11,000, insured for $5,500; He .men Bros., furniture, $10,000, insured for $6,000; Schoenfeld A Cook, furniture, $80,—000, insured for $26,000; Cunningham „A .Downey saloon, $1,000, insured for $3,000; Volnev Spalding,’ saloon, $30,000, insured for $10,000; Fred Boegle, stationer, $31,000, insured for $14,000; Wai. Ash, stationer, $120,000,iDSured for $10,000; E. Strother, dwelling, $40,000, insured for $5,000; Cohen A Isaacs, clothiers, $90,000, insured for about one-fourth; H. S. Beck, 16 houses. $50,000, insured for about $10,000; J. Bar–1 bert, clothier, estimated at $75,000, insurance light; i Banner Bros, .clothiers, estimated at $70,000, insurance ! light; V. Elliott, $17,000, insured for’ $5,000 in Imperial and $3,000 in Heme Mutual of Sin Francisco; Territorial Enterprise building, paper and presses, estimated a’ $75,000, insured for about 33 per cent.; city buildings, $2,500, no insurance; Court-house and , treasury, $100,000, insured for $37,000; Mall. Bros., grocers, $50,000 ; J. Root’s (of I San Francisco) building, $10,000 ; Bank of California I building, .$40,000, insured for $20,000; Union ! market, $3,000; Washington saloon, $3,000; Delta saloon, $8,000; Marco Medin, ten buildings, $150,000, ! insured for about $50,000 ; Harris, cigars, $10,000, insured for $3,000 ; Evans Linch, bouse, $2,500, uninsured Lafayette market, $3,500 ; Theo. Wolf, j tailor, $8,C00; Scboenmann, gunsmith, $2,0.0; Luther’s drug store, $15,000, some insurance; GLamuzzi A Co., tailors, $8,000; International bull Ing, $40,000′ | insured for one-third; Masonic Hall, partly built, : $2,500; Crand ill’s furniture factory,: $20,000, insured ‘< f r $6,000; Empire market and dwelling, $10,000; Joe ! Davy’s loon, $2,000; Dunn’s saloon, $2,000; J. Voj gal, two saloons and brewery, $20,000; Ophir hoisting ‘, works, $250,000, insured for $60,000; Consolidated Virginia hoisting works and wood, $1,500,000. insured for ! $45,000; Consolidated Virginia 60 -tamo mill, ! $190,000; buildings from the White Pine saloon to Mill street, valued at $60,000, light i insurance; buildings from Mill street lb Carson street, valued at $55,000 ; Virginia Bank. $30,000, insured for $15,000; Black’s building, $30,000; De Long A Belknap, attorneys, $15,000, insured for $5,000; Myers’ Baths, $10,000; Chicago Saloon, $9,000 ; J. C. Currie, auctioneer, $75,000 ; Fredericksburg Brewery, $10,000; six houses from Virginia Bank to Union street, $120,000; Sutro Saloon, $1,500, uninsured ; from Sat Saloon to Post-office, $10,000 ; Mrs. Gray, dressmaker, $1,000; J. C. Hampton A Co., grocers, $25,000, insured for $12,000; Ritter’s gun-shop, $1,000; Wregand’s assay office, $20,000; Bonanza Market, $1,500 ; j Ada Greer, bawdy-house, $10,000, partly insured; I Turner Hall, No. 1, fixtures, $1,000; Turner nail, No. 2, j fixtures, $1,000; Edith Slillts, eight buildings, $20,000 —partly insured; Ophir Lodging House, $12,000— no insurance; Loukey k Smitb, lumber and house, $50,—000—insured for $10,000; from Lonke.v & Smith’s to Carson street, $5,000; U.S. Surveyor’s office and build ing, $10,000; from Taylor street to Court-house, ten buildings, $25,000; Washoe Club-room and fittings, $75,000 -insured for $30,000; Babcock’s furniture store, $10,000; from Babcock’s to Capital Building, excluding Pioneer Hall and Miners’ Union, $s,ooo—uninsured; Miner’s Union, $10,000— insured for $4,000; Montgomery Guard, $3,000-uninsured; Mrs. Rissa, three bouses, $40,0X1— insured for $15,000; Engine Hou>e No. 1, $1,_00; No. 68 North B street, $10,000; Mr. Sentz, house, $15,000; E. . brother’s to Judge Whitman’s, three houses, $25,000; J. McGee, four dwellings, $10,—000; J. Steffen, dwell $2,500: Collins 1 House, $10,000; from Collins’ to Taylor street, $5,000; Mrs. Cooper, two large new houses, $50,000, Insured for $15,000; from Taylor to Union street, on A street, two rows of small dwellings, $40,000; from Union street to Sutton avenue, on A street, both sides, $50,000 ; from Sutton avenue to Mill street, both sides of A street, $10,000; Stewart street, both sides, $50.0 ( Howard street, both sides, $55,000 ; co D street, scores of bandy houses and fittings; from Union to Carson street, tbree blocks, $200,000; 3. Rick, livery stable, $2,500; E. Z. Dickson’s livery stable, $2,000; railroad depots, cars, tunnel and goods, $150,000; three blocks, small dwellings, from Union to Smith and E to G streets, including two school houses, $50,000; Kelly & Co., liquors, $30,000; Footlight office, $5,000; Dr. Cornwall, $5,000, insured for $2,000; R. Dey, $4,000, insure! for $1,500; F. A. Tritle, $25,000, insured for $10,00.; Free Masons, $2,000, insured for $700; Peter Milich, $30,000, insured for $10,000; Hatch Bros., $45,000, insured for $15,000; Kaph Bros., grocers, $6,000, insured for $2,000; Catholic Church, $80,000, insured for $30,000; Episcopal Church, $30,000, insured for $15,000; Methodist Church, $25,000, insured lor $10,000; A. G. McKenzie, dwelling, $12,000. Total houses, goods. Improvements, etc., as above given,


The estimated loss of personal chattels, jewelry etc., it is impossible to make close, but citizens ac. qnaintcd with the people losing insist it will reach $225,. 600, giving a grand total of


Of losses. Against this is insurance known above


Probably not more thipi three-fourths of the insurance is thus included. To-day the charred remains of a woman wire found in a bawdy house on D street. Her name is unknown. Also the remains of a man were found in the Singleton lodging house ; supposed to be Martin Slusher of Southern California.


John Piper’s theatrical troupe lost their entire valuable wardrobe. Piper will rebuild the Opera House at once, and keep all engagements this winter. Nearly all owners announce their intention to rebuild. Two heavy trains loaded with people left for California and other points to-night. It is estimated that


Until next summer. O. C. Steele is the first man to put up a new building. It is a shanty, and he has opened it with a saloon in one end and a butcher shop . in the other. The Gould k Curry mine is so filled with , gas from the damaged mines that men cannot go down. Work is stopped in the mine. Thirty feet of the Virginia shaft frame was burned. The Virginia and . Truckee Railroad has applied to connecting roads to , give reduced fares to sufferers. The Truckee road carries free all sufferei s.

It is alleged that on Tuesday a man was seen trying to fire the Consolidated and California works, but was chased away. Insurance agents are calculating losses, and refuse their figures till they are complete. The principal companies involved are : Agency of A. L. Edwards ; Commercial Union, of London ; London and Lancashire; London Assurance; North British and Mercantile; British America, Toronto; Royal Canadian. Montreal ; French Corporation, Paris ; Hartford’ of Connecticut ; Continental, ol Ne* York ; Niagara, of New York ; North America, of Philadelphia I American, of Philadelphia; Germ American, ol New York ; Fireman’s Fund, of San Francisco ; Agency of W. B. Hickok ; State Investment, San Francisco; Commercial Insurance Company; Imperial; Agency of N. J. Henley ; Hutchinson, Main k Co.; Combination; J. A. Brumsey’s Agency Home Mutual, of California.

It was showery early in the evening, but cleared up. Very few but now have shelter. Gold Hill has fitted up all public buildings, school bouses, etc., for women and children, and the boi. ting works for men. Through the agency of the Carson Relief Committee ample provisions but far is dispensed at the First Ward and Third Ward school houses. About 3,500 people were fed t:-day. John Mackey, of the well known firm of Flood k O’Brien, Mackey & Fair, says that no ore will be hoisted from the damaged mines before next spring, and that this throws 2,500 miners out of employment He further says there will be 5,000 people to leave here, and all that is needed now is moDey to transport them. F.LVIEW OF EVENTS. Opportunity now offers for us to review more in de. tail the sceres of the first day. The excitement while the fire was at its bight was fearful. The bells of the churches were senselessly clanged and served no belter purpose than to add to the wild fear which fell upon the city. People living blocks away Irom where the fire was raging began to tumble their furniture into the streets, and as the clanging bells, shrieking whistles and the roaring of the conflagration sent lortb their hideous and demoralizing din the whole city went mad. Household goods were dragged tut of dwellings and left to burn, as no means of conveyance to places of safety could be secured. Residents of Howard and the streets above in many instances succeeded In getting their furniture out of the bouses, but not one in a score were able to engage a vehicle of any kind to carry his effects. Teamsters put up prices fearfully, even to exorbitant figures. The few coods saved by them were insignificant compared with the total loss. A rumor was abroad that a frenzied man shot a teamster on B street for refusing a libera] offer to carry away furniture. As the fire gained terrible headway, running up the mountain, down to C and over to D street, a dense cloud of smoke overhung the city like the black forerunner of a thunder-storm; the sable mass made a background to the leaping flames, which left their source and shot upward in great bodies with a rush and loud roar; the people, even to the outskirts, set about saying what they might, pressing into service every conceivable style of vehicle, from a wheelbarrow to a barouche. Shouting and swearing men by the hundred were to be seen taking the place of horses and tearing out C street to the Geiger grade with wagon loads of furniture and bedding behind them. The streets resembled an army in dismay; every man for himself became the general cry; self swallowed every consideration. Careful women, surrounded by clinging children, appealed in vain for help to save their little property. Men, women and children staggered along under enoimou. loads. Drivers became reckless of the safety of those on foot, and, whipping their horses into a gallop, dashed through the scrambling masses, followed by the yells of anger and curses. The dreadful excitement grew as acre after acre of buildings were added to the burning district. People a (garter of a mile from the fire threw a few necessary articles of clothing into a bundle, dragged cut a trunk or two and left their homes standing open to the thief, and fled to the hills or Geiger grade ia despair. The temporary forgetfulness given by whisky was sought, and drunken men, laughing and howling in dismal mirth over the ruins, were seen by the dozen. The flames had now razed everything down to D street, and it became cvi. Ident tuat the hoisting works and mill of the Consolidated Virginia would go If some desperate action was not taken. The Methodist Episcopal church caught fire from Black’s building, and the hose of the Gould A Curry was brought into service, but to no purpose. Piper’s Opera House began to smoke and blaz *, and it was evident that the fire from this structure would be communicated to the railroad buildings and Consolidated Vnginia works. Taking in the situation, Chief of Police White blew up the Opera House, and immediately afterwards caused a building on tie corner of Union and E streets to be torn down, but all was useless. The freight depot and other railroad buildings were shortly blazing, and la a few moments the new California mill and the Consolidated Virginia hoisting works and mill were sharing the common fate. The o;<bir went next, and every one of the hundreds of dwellings in Mm vicinity went out of existence. All the offices, lumber piles and other property of the companies were destroyed. By herculean efforts, the new C. 4 C. shaft, with the machinery was saved, and here the progress of the fire eastward ended. A great number of loaded wood cars burned where they stood. The railroad tunuel took fire shortly before, and the timbers and a large part of it fell. The whole town was now wrapped in flames. From X to Stewart street, a distance of half a mile, was one solid body of fire, sweeping everything before it and moving northward with fearful speed. For whole blocks in advance there was a roaring flood of flame. Houses were deserted and the panic stricken population fled to the Geiger grade. It was a frightful race, and one not to be forgotten. As a general thing men bore themselves really admirably, but pictures of

I wild excitement and ungovernable fear were painfully ! numerous. Many women left their homes in the ; terror of flight, while others could be seen standing out of the press, having given up to speechless dismay. A s .range spectacle was presented on the Geiger grade. The broad roadway was, for more than half a mile, one struggling mass of human beings bearing heavy burdens and crowded among loadel teams. The hills in all directions were dotted with homeless families camped ami Ist the few goods they had managed to save. Pictures in gilded frames leaned against the telegraph poles. Large bundles of bedding on tne road impeded progress. Handsome lodges and easy chairs mingled with the bowlders. Ladies in costly but disarranged attire sat upon rocks by* the wayside, and poor women carrying screaming infants and followed by miserable youngsters pressed their way frantically in the crowd. Drunken men shouted forth maudlin songs and picked quarrels with sober ones when humor seized them. All hurry, fright, and desperate scramble.

The fire having exhausted itself and the lowering sky betokening the approach of a stormy night, the homeless people set about looking for shelter, that part of the city remaining unburnt consisting of a mere litu of houses. They soon became crowded to their utmost capacity. Hundreds of people had no roof to cover them. The hillsides, as night drew on, became dotted with cam » fires. Mount Davidson, Cedar Hill and the surrounding hills became for the nonce the home of some wrecked family Following the practice of the Piutes, many built fires* threw up walls of sage brush to the windward. The porches and verandahs of houses were appropriated by the houseless. Many walked the desolated streets through the long night, warming themselves by the smoldering rules. Towards morning the honor of the situation was doubly aggravated by a copious fall of ram. Poor wretches expose! to the elements must have suffered terribly. Before daylight they were wandering about the smoky streets searching for the wherewith to stay their hunger. To-night the condition of things is much better, most of the people having found temporary homes. So far everything betokens a bard night. After sundown the rain began to fall, with the wind from, the west, which brought the first snow of the season. The weather is biting cold. While no serious suffering can be said to exist, there is no mistake about the existence of much discomfort. Everything is of course topsy turvy. The telegraph office- are located in the school-bouses on the outskirts of the city. The Post office has started in afresh with a tea box with a hole in it for a starter, the Bank of California has an of. flee in that of Driscoll k Co., stock broker.-. The Enterprise issued a diminutive sheet this morning, and to-night the Evening Chronicle comes out in half sheet. The jail and city prison are gone. The prisoners were taken to the Philadelphia Brewery and guarded with shotguns. To-day drunkenness has been prevalent, and after dark General Winters ordered out a squad of soldiers and peremptorily closed the saloons.

The smoke from Ophir this morning was due entirely to the first few timbers which burned, and the men at Ophir believe there is no fire below. The machinery is to be covered in, as much of it is good for use again. As soon as the timbers can be procured, retimbering will commence. The Consolidated Virginia, which like the Ophir, was bulkheaded with filled cages, is believed to be safe. This evening smoke came from the seams of the bulkheads, but the foreman says that it came from Ophir, and that there cannot possibly be any fire below. This is considered to be very strange by many persons, as there is no connection between thee mines except at a point considerably below the 1,000-foot level, and as strong coal-like gas comes from Gould & Curry it creates fears. The gas cannot go into Savage, as the connecting level is bulkheaded. The works at the Consolidated Virginia are to be rebuilt as soon as timber can be had.


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